Social Studies - Civil Liberties Descriptions
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If you have further questions
about Social Studies education, contact:

Carol Coe, Social Studies
Program Supervisor
carol.coe@k12.wa.us
(360) 725-6351

 

Social Studies

Washington Civil Liberties Public Education Program:
Descriptions

The development and implementation of WCLPEP projects have taken multiple forms. For example, some WCLPEP projects developed web-based curriculum to be used in K-12 classrooms while other projects produced and supported one-time events such as dramatic performances. Some WCLPEP projects produced curriculum materials that were designed for wide-spread and continued use in Washington State, and others did not.

The following descriptions are organized into groups according to the years that the projects were implemented. The descriptions should help educators understand the variety and availability of curriculum materials.

 

WCLPEP Projects

Omoide V


Grade Range: 5th-11th
Explicit references to EALRS: yes

Scope of Project:
The Omoide team created the fifth edition of the Omoide book series based on the Japanese American experience of Internment. Curriculum was developed for the updated Omoide website including an Instructional Guide and Sample Lesson Plans. Presentations/ workshops continue into the 2009-2010 school year.

Project Summary:
The Omoide team is an intergal part of the Japanese Cultural and Community Center of Washington (JCCCW) that focuses on the unique Japanese American experience in the Pacific Northwest. The Omoide V project has worked to collect, assemble, edit, publish, and distribute 42 first-hand accounts of local Japanese Americans' history before, during, and after World War II. Interviews with individuals from the era provide the rich content of Omoide books. The "Nisei" second generation Japanese Americans are the primary source of these first-hand accounts and, as an aging group, are rapidly disappearing.

The Omoide team provides public presentations and distributes instructional resources through mailings and the Omoide Website. Classroom presentations are scheduled through the JCCCW office. Omoide presentations provide educators with key historic documents followed by a classroom presentation by Omoide V authors. The Omoide project also contributes to educators’ and students’ primary source needs to accomplish Washington State Classroom Based Assessments for Social Studies including:

  • Dig Deep, grades 5, 8 and high school
  • Checks and Balances, grade 8
  • Constitutional Issues, grades 8 and 10/11

The Omoide team provides source documents for educators prior to presentations along with sample lesson plans available through the Omoide website. Omoide presentations include stories, photographic artifacts and objects, the sharing of personal experiences and small discussion groups. Post Presentation the Omoide team welcomes receiving essays from students and evaluations from educators.

Availability of Materials:
http://www.jcccw.org/Omoide/index.html

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Heroes Behind Barbed Wire Documentary Film Project
Bainbridge Island Japanese American Community

Grade Range: 6th through 12th grade
Explicit References to EALRS: Yes

Scope of Project:
A 17-minute documentary film, Honor and Sacrifice: Nisei Patriots in the MIS and accompanying curriculum guide with activities that support the OSPI-developed CBA, "Dig Deep" that can be used with the film. Workshops will be offered to teachers in Summer 2010.

Project Summary:
The film Honor and Sacrifice: Nisei Patriots in the MIS chronicles the journey of Msgt. Roy Matsumoto, a Japanese American linguist with the Merrill’s Marauders during WWII. Roy was born in Los Angeles, raised and educated in Japan, but returned to America, only to soon be sent to a concentration camp in Jerome, Arkansas. Roy volunteered for service in the U.S. Army from behind barbed wire, despite the fact that his American family members and friends remained imprisoned and the family members that returned to Japan were in particular danger from U.S. bombing. His story begins with Japanese immigrant roots and leads to uncommon valor and heroism, fighting the Japanese Army in the jungles of Burma with Merrill’s Marauders. Roy Matsumoto is credited with saving the lives of over 800 American soldiers and saved his battalion twice during the campaign in Burma, India, and China. Matsumoto’s story is more poignant, as his parents were living in Hiroshima when that city was destroyed by the first atomic bomb, and he was in charge of interrogating family members who served in the Japanese Army during the American Occupation following the war. Matsumoto is one of the most highly decorated Nisei soldiers in WWII, and has the unique distinction of being honored in both the Army Ranger and MIS Halls of Fame. His story will capture the hearts and imaginations of those interested in WWII history as it illustrates the true meaning of sacrifice, courage, and patriotism.

An accompanying curriculum guide challenges students to "Dig Deep" using artifacts, other oral histories, and website materials to explore the patriotism and sacrifices of Nisei soldiers in the Pacific Theater during WWII, as well as to research the history of other people of color who participated in the war effort.

Availability of Materials:
Film can be viewed on the BIJAC website and a free downloadable curriculum is also available.

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Within the Silence
Living Voices
by Ken Mochizuki

Grade Range: 4th - adult
Explicit References to EALRS: Yes

Scope of Project:
Living Voices offered 115 presentations/workshops to 8,470 people (primarily elementary through college students) between late fall 2008 through June 30, 2009 at 49 different sites throughout Washington.

Project Summary:
Within the Silence is a program about the Interment of Americans of Japanese ancestry that is interactive, personal, accessible, relevant and utilizes live performance and multimedia with interactive components accompanied by an optional workshop. Available to tour anywhere, it can be used as an enhancement to a school’s curriculum or as a diversity training tool for corporations or experienced by the general community.

The goals and objectives of the project were to:

  • Provide Washington schools and audiences the opportunity to experience the Internment via an innovative multimedia performance with discussion.
  • Offer an accompanying workshop building upon the ideas, images, and perceptions the students experienced in watching the performance to help them understand the core issues behind the exclusion.
  • Provide a study guide with suggestions for curriculum applications to accompany the presentation, so that educators could use the show as a catalyst for further discussion and additional classroom exploration of the relevance of studying the Internment of Americans of Japanese ancestry.
  • Link the history to contemporary issues and experiences of all our diverse populations.
  • Outreach to as many areas and diverse populations throughout Washington state as possible.

Availability of Materials:
Free study guide
Free curriculum guide
Free bibliography
Program may be booked by contacting Living Voices

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Day of Remembrance Program
Wing Luke Asian Museum


Grade Range: 9th – 12th Grade
Explicit References to EALRS: Yes

 

Scope of Project:
The Wing Luke Asian Museum brought its Day of Remembrance (DOR) program to three schools: Puyallup High School in Puyallup, Washington for its second year with approximately 300 students and 8 teachers in participation; Newport High School in the Bellevue School District for its first year of the program with approximately 200 students and teachers in participation; and Lewis & Clark High School in the Spokane School District also for its first year of the program.

Project Summary:
The Wing Luke Asian Museum’s Day of Remembrance (DOR), an in-school high school education program, brings to life the history of the Japanese American incarceration during World War II and explores issues within the present-day context of the experiences of Arab, Muslim, Sikh, Iraqi and Somali Americans in the aftermath of September 11 and the war in Iraq. DOR educates students about a critical moment in history, engaging students, teachers and witnesses in an intelligent and meaningful exploration of the events of World War II. DOR also links this past with the present-day stories of other communities of color – Sikh, Iraqi, Somali and Muslim Americans – who have experienced discrimination and civil rights violations in the aftermath of September 11, 2001 and explores the need to protect constitutional rights in the present day. DOR presents an integrated and sequential learning program that utilizes literature, performing arts, music and personal testimony to spur student understanding of connections between past history, current events, and their own lives. DOR includes intensive teacher training and a week-long curriculum implementation and meets the Washington State Essential Academic Learning Requirements (EARLs) as measured by the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction-developed Classroom Based Assessments (CBAs), covering topics such as constitutional issues, civil rights, challenges to democracy, cultural interactions, and causes of conflict.

Availability of Materials:
More information including Day of Remembrance Program Overview, Student Readers and School Tours.

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Densho Civil Liberties CBA Curricula

Grade Range: 4th-12th
Explicit References to CBAs: Yes

Scope of Project:
To evaluate CBA-aligned Social Studies lessons created by Densho: The Japanese American Legacy Project, 12 teachers tested a 3-week unit and participated in beginning and ending workshops. A report is available of the data and recommendations collected from teachers’ comments, classroom observation, and student work samples.

Project Summary:
Teachers assessed three-week units with student activities that include analyzing primary sources such as oral histories, a newsreel, and historic speeches. The goal for student learning was to gain an understanding of who is American and how civil right can be eroded by fear, racist beliefs, and economic competition.

For high school, and with an elementary school adaptation, a lesson on “Issues of Immigration” aligned with the history CBA “Causes of Conflict,” explores the essential question “How do conflicts over immigration arise from labor needs and social change?”

For high school, a lesson on “Civil Liberties, Individual, and the Common Good,” aligned with the civics CBA “Constitutional Issues,” explores the essential question “How can the United States balance the rights of individuals with the common good?”

For high school, and with a middle school adaptation, a lesson on “Media and the Incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II,” aligned with the history CBA “Dig Deep,” explores the essential question “How do members of a democracy become fully informed so that they can participate responsibly and effectively?”

Availability of Materials:
Free curriculum.

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A Child’s Experience of Internment
Heather Lenox


Grade Range: 6th-10th
Explicit References to EALRS: Yes

Scope of Project:
In addition to curriculum development, 21 teachers and 97 pre-service teachers received curriculum materials and participated in workshops that detailed curriculum implementation.

Project Summary:
The curriculum encourages present day students to actively construct understanding of the WWII incarceration of Japanese Americans by exploring the perspectives of incarcerated students similar in age to themselves. Based upon the experiences of WWII Japanese American children, Theatre-In Education (TIE) is deployed to help students role play different stakeholders involved with events surrounding the WWII mass incarceration. The experiences of Japanese American children are captured in letters sent by a student in a camp, Cathy, back to her hometown teacher. Present day students are asked to help Cathy with a dilemma concerning her brother. He has been asked to fill out a loyalty survey that could lead to either being inducted into the Army or imprisoned under harsher conditions. In order to help Cathy in her decision, present day students form small groups and research sources surrounding the incarcerations. As a group, students discuss their advice for Cathy and the reasons for their positions. Finally, students write individual letters and share them with their classmates.

Availability of Materials:
Free curriculum.

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Eastern Washington State Historical Society
Heidi Hoblin and Rose Krause


Grade Range: 6th-10th
Explicit References to EALRS and CBA: Yes

Scope of Project:
The project involved the creation of a curriculum that describes the history of Japanese Americans in Spokane. In addition to a seven-lesson unit, the CD that was produced from the project contains virtual museum tours and reproductions of primary and secondary sources. The CD was distributed throughout Educational Service District 101.

Project Summary:
The lessons and resources contained in the curriculum support student learning that is aligned with the Washington State “Dig Deep” Classroom Based Assessment. The Curriculum unit contains seven lessons that help students understand different aspects of the experiences of Japanese Americans in Spokane. A simulation in lesson one helps students examine, in a small way, what it feels like to be segregated, relocated, and discriminated against. This provides background for a discussion of the experiences of Japanese immigrants with segregation and discrimination. Lesson two focuses on map skills as students study the location of Japanese businesses in Spokane in 1910. Students examine how restrictions on Japanese owned businesses affected their locations. In lesson three, students search through a virtual tour on CD to look at Japanese owned Spokane businesses. They are asked to describe the discriminatory business restrictions that were placed on Japanese businesses. In lesson four, students search through newspaper sources to find evidence of discrimination in the media. Lesson five asks students to compare media accounts with the oral histories of Japanese Americans. Students are provided transcripts of oral histories and discuss their importance. In lesson six, students learn how to analyze historical documents. In lesson seven, students write a historical account based upon the evidence that they gathered. All lessons are supported by resources on the curriculum CD.

Availability of Materials:
The curriculum can be obtained in CD format from Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture.

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Rabbit in the Moon DVD Distribution
Chizu Omori


Grade Range: 6th-12th
Explicit References to EALRS: No

Scope of Project:
570 copies of The Rabbit in the Moon were distributed to high schools in Washington State. The film is supported by a website constructed by the project. The project and film producer was also available to answer educators’ questions concerning classroom implementation.

Project Summary:
The Rabbit in the Moon DVD was distributed to all high schools in Washington State, and the project supported the film’s use with a website and access to the filmmaker. The Film details the lives of incarcerated Japanese Americans before, during, and after the WWII era, as well as the long term effects that the incarceration had upon individual and community lives. Combining interviews and other archival data, the film details the devastating effects that the mass incarceration has had upon Japanese American families and communities. For example, due to government demands to answer questions concerning “loyalty” and military service, the Japanese American community became divided over questions of resistance. Besides the physical loss of property, many Japanese Americans were forced to sever ties of ethnicity. Issues of denied civil rights, racism, “loyalty,” citizenship, and identity are supported with rich and detailed personal narratives. The films running time is 85 minutes, and the DVD contains 130 additional minutes of extra resources.

Availability of Materials:
An informational website and the DVD can be purchased online. Additionally, a PBS website concerning the film can be accessed. The PBS site includes free downloadable video files from the film. The film is already in 570 high schools in Washington State. The Film’s website, provides additional resources to supplement the film.

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Rediscovering Our History: Children of the Camps Project
Clarkston School District


Grade Range: 6th-10th
Explicit References to EALRS: Yes

Scope of Project:
Project developers purchased and authored curriculum materials regarding the WWII mass incarceration of Japanese Americans. The resulting teacher education and support reached an estimated 600 students in the Clarkston School District. In addition to the purchase and development of curriculum materials, teachers evaluated and compiled a list of recommended internet resources for classroom use.

Project Summary:
There were three components of the project. First, teachers were introduced to existing information and curriculum materials that focused upon the WWII incarceration of Japanese Americans. The information provided teachers with the content and knowledge necessary to design and implement lessons. Second, teachers evaluated and composed a list of recommended internet resources for educators to use in their classrooms. The project’s authors confirmed the availability of numerous helpful websites. Third, teachers created lesson plans that were adapted from existing curricula. Based upon existing curriculum materials, teachers learned to develop lessons tailored to the individual needs of their classrooms. In sum, the Rediscovering Our History: Children of the Camps project introduced teachers to resources that enabled them to develop lesson plans and bring study of the mass incarceration of Japanese Americans to their classrooms.

Availability of Materials:
Because the focus of this project was teacher education and the purchase of curriculum materials within one school district, access to materials is limited to Clarkston School District.

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Take Me Home: A Child’s Experience of Internment
Contemporary Arts Alliance: David Tanner


Grade Range: 6th-8th
Explicit References to EALRS: Yes

Scope of Project:
The project developed a 15-minute documentary and companion curriculum concerning the WWII mass incarceration of Japanese Americans. A copy of the documentary and curriculum were sent to each Washington educational service district as well as six other educational institutions.

Project Summary:
The 15-minute documentary and companion curriculum helps students view the events surrounding the WWII Japanese American mass incarceration from the perspective of a Japanese American boy who was of similar age to contemporary students. The video documentary portion of the project contains an interview with Karl Ota concerning his experiences with these events and is supplemented by the narrative of the incarceration from the perspective of a 6th grade boy. Both narratives provide a first-person testimony of events. The voice of the boy speaks to issues of loss, prejudice, and civil rights from the unique perspective of a 6th grader. For example, the boy describes his experience of having to abandon his dog when he and his family are forced out of their home. The accompanying curriculum supports classroom activities and discussions before, during, and after viewing the documentary. Previewing activities encourage students to understand the concept of leaving their homes and belongings. Next, geographical relationships are explored between homes in coastal areas as compared to the incarceration camps that were in desert areas. While viewing the documentary, teachers can stop the video at predetermined locations and ask students guiding questions concerning past and present connections with incarceration events. Issues of prejudice, loyalty, media, and civil rights are central to the guiding questions. Post-viewing activities and assessments also support these issues.

Availability of Materials:
The curriculum guide is available in pdf format. Each Educational Service District (ESD) in Washington State has a copy of the film. Educators can obtain a copy from their ESD for free use in Washington State. In the event that individuals would like to own a copy of the film, it will eventually be available for purchase at: Take Me Home.

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Within the Silence 2004-2005
Living Voices

Grade Range: 3rd-12th
Explicit References to EALRS: No

Scope of Project:
The project involved two parts. First, students watched a Living Voices performance of Within the Silence. Second, some of the schools participated in workshops that extended themes of the performance. During the 2004/2005 school year, the Within the Silence program reached 64 school sites. The combined total of performances and workshops was 162, reaching 14,463 students.

Project Summary:
The Living Voices Project has two components. First, events surrounding the WWII mass incarceration of Japanese Americans are portrayed in a multimedia dramatic presentation. The Within the Silence presentation is composed of a live narrative of an actress in tandem with an audiovisual presentation. The narrative follows the experiences of a Japanese American family before, during, and after their incarceration. Before their incarceration, the family experiences community prejudice. During their incarceration, the family experiences harsh living conditions and brothers are forced to answer questions of “loyalty.” The answers to “loyalty” questions change the destinies of the two brothers. One brother refuses to serve in the military and is sent to Japan while the other brother serves in the military and is killed. Issues of prejudice, racism, citizenship, “loyalty,” and civil rights frame the presentation. After completing the 40-minute presentation, students are encouraged to ask questions in a 20-minute discussion. The second part of the Living Voices program extends the themes of the multimedia presentation by deploying dramatic methods in classroom activities. Through role-playing, character development, and other activities, students develop an individual understanding of the multiple perspectives behind the mass incarceration events. Issues of prejudice, tolerance, and civil rights are central to the workshop activities. A supplementary teacher’s packet supports pre- and post-performance activities.

Availability of Materials:
A pdf of the teachers guide is available at the Living Voices website, but the guide is based upon live performances and workshops. However, the free guide could provide useful ideas for teachers. It is accessible at this website. Schools can receive information and make program reservations. Information concerning Within the Silence can be obtained at this site.

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Integrating the Japanese American Experience into Your Northwest History Class
Whitworth College: Janet Hauck

Grade Range: 4th-12th
Explicit References to EALRS: Yes

Scope of Project:
Whitworth College professors and Whitworth College Archivists directed a workshop with twelve K-12 teachers. The workshop focused upon strategies for teachers to introduce two Whitworth documentary products (In Time of War and From Coast and Camp to the Inland Empire) and other curriculum materials into their classrooms.

Project Summary:
The project developed and implemented a 2-credit college level course concerning the integration of Japanese American perspectives into Northwest curricula. In the course, teachers developed units and lesson plans that incorporated a variety of sources that support student learning of the experiences of Japanese Americans in the Spokane area. One of the purposes of the course was to utilize the work of past Whitworth projects by developing plans for their classroom implementation. Teachers incorporated Whitworth documentary products (In Time of War and From Coast and Camp to the Inland Empire) into K-12 curricula in a manner that was aligned with EALR’s and Classroom Based Assessments. The Whitworth documentaries contain the oral histories of Japanese Americans and center on instances of discrimination as they moved from Western Washington to Eastern Washington in response to their forced exclusion from coastal areas. The incorporation of the documentaries into the curriculum provided unique opportunities for teachers to examine instances of acceptance and discrimination within the communities where they teach. Teachers were encouraged to teach their students about past and present discrimination from a variety of perspectives. In other sections of the workshop teachers developed lesson plans and unit plans based upon books, internet sites, and other curriculum materials.

Availability of Materials:
Free audio files and other curriculum resources are available. Companion photographs to the audio program are also available.

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The Price of Freedom Youth Summit: Institutionalized Racism from a Global Perspective
World Affairs Council Global Classroom


Grade Range: 6th-10th
Explicit References to EALRS and CBA: Yes

Scope of Project:
The project involved four components. First, a website was developed to provide resources for the examination of institutionalized racism and the mass incarceration of Japanese Americans. Connections were made with institutionalized racism around the globe. Second, two teacher workshops were given in order to introduce curriculum materials from “The Price of Freedom” program and website resources. Third, a Japanese American spoke about his experiences during WWII in two high school visits. A total of 65 students were in attendance. Forth, two youth summits on institutionalized racism were conducted in different locations of Washington State. About 65 middle and high school students attended a Western Washington summit, and about 150 high school students attended an Eastern Washington summit.

Project Summary:
The “Price of Freedom” program taught teachers and students about the experiences of Japanese Americans during WWII, as well as provide contemporary and global perspectives on issues of prejudice and institutionalized racism. The program included website development, teacher training, classroom visits from Japanese Americans, and youth summits. A website was developed to support classroom implementation with lesson plans, Classroom Based Assessment information, and numerous other resources. The project also included two teacher training workshops. In the workshops, teachers met members of the Japanese American community and learned how to implement the “Price of Freedom” curriculum in their classrooms. The next phase of the project included classroom visits by members of the Japanese American community. In the visits, Nisei Japanese Americans discussed their WWII experiences with high school students. The last phase of the project included two Youth Summits. Middle and high school students discussed the WWII mass incarceration of Japanese Americans and contemporary forms of institutionalized racism. The considerations of racism were global in perspective as various speakers related their experiences in multiple countries. Comparisons were discussed between the WWII mass incarcerations and the treatment of some summit participants. The event also included representatives from local civic organizations. A full description of “The Price of Freedom” program as well as pictures from the youth summits can be obtained online.  Availability of Materials: Free curriculum materials.


 

 

Alternative Voices: Other Perspectives of the Japanese American Incarceration
Densho: The Japanese American Legacy Project


Grade Range: 5-12
Explicit References to EALRS: Yes

Scope of Project:
"Non-Japanese Americans" were interviewed, and the video of the interviews are accessible through the Densho website.

Project Summary:
The Project recorded the oral histories of “non-Japanese Americans” who witnessed prejudice or discrimination during the WWII mass incarceration of Japanese Americans. For example, the interview of Justice Charles Smith recalls his experiences with discrimination and prejudice. Other interviews on the Densho website detail the perspectives of people on a broad range of subjects. The aim of the project was to add multiple perspectives to accounts of prejudice and discrimination in order to construct a rich historical context for the mass incarceration events, as well as make connections with present day parallels. Considerations of civil rights are central to the parallels. The Densho archive provides teachers with the resources to teach students about the WWII mass incarceration of Japanese Americans and provides links to present day civil rights issues. Curriculum units and lesson plans on the website provide support for teachers who would like to implement the Densho curriculum in their classrooms. The lesson plans and curriculum materials are in pdf format and are easily downloaded. The availability of primary and secondary sources on the website provides teachers and students with the resources necessary to perform Classroom Based Assessments.

Availability of Materials:
Densho provides free access to photographs, audio, and video archival materials at and curriculum materials.

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In Time of War: The Japanese American experience of WWII
Whitworth College


Grade Range: 5-12
Explicit References to EALRS: Yes

Scope of Project:
The project involved the production and dissemination of a video documentary a companion website, and a lesson plan aligned with EALRS and CBA.

Project Summary:
The video documentary is comprised of archival footage and resources in tandem with the oral histories of Japanese Americans as they relate their recollections of WWII. The documentary is unique in its portrayal of multiple local perspectives. Some of the oral histories include memories of a “voluntary evacuation” from Western Washington to Eastern Washington. Other oral histories are from the perspectives of those who were incarcerated during WWII. These latter perspectives are broken down into two additional perspectives: those who resisted induction and those inducted into the military. Both are portrayed as fighting for freedom in different ways. The companion website contains a link to a lesson plan that was created for the documentary. In the lesson, students discuss issues concerning Japanese American experiences of WWII from multiple perspectives.

Availability of Materials:
100 copies of the DVD were disseminated to schools throughout Educational Service District 101. Due to present copyright restrictions, the documentary cannot be accessible through the internet. A companion website accompanies the film. The lesson plan can be downloaded.

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A Lesson in American History: The Japanese American Experience
Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)
Karen Yoshitomi

Grade Range: 2-12
Explicit References to EALRS: Yes

Scope of Project:
The JACL delivered two teacher training workshops to a total of about 65 teachers and 50 high school students. Teachers received a free curriculum guide and CD.

Project Summary:
Teachers and students participated in workshops where they received training and were provided an extensive curriculum guide and interactive CD. The JACL workshops were aimed at increasing teacher knowledge and interest in teaching the WWII mass incarceration of Japanese Americans. In addition, an emphasis was made upon the connection between past and contemporary civil rights abuses. The 125-page curriculum guide that each teacher received included a historical overview, resources, and lesson plans. The historical overview of the Japanese American experience extends from the nineteenth century to the present. The persistent struggles of Japanese Americans against prejudice and racism provide a context for students to examine the causes of the WWII incarceration. Students explore contemporary discrimination in society and try to understand the experiences of marginalized groups who are targets of discrimination. The curriculum guide also includes lesson plans that are divided into sections by grade, six lessons for elementary school grades and six lessons for middle through high school grades. A list of EALR’s that might be satisfied by learning activities is included. Participants in the teacher workshops also watched a Living Voices Performance of “Within the Silence” and other media centering upon the WWII incarceration.

Availability of Materials:
The curriculum guide titled A Lesson in American History: The Japanese American Experience and a CD containing additional resources is available through Educational Service Districts in Washington State. Educators can also order copies at the JACL website.

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Civil Rights and the Internment of Japanese Americans during World War II
Karl Schmidt-Bristol Productions
Grade Range: 4-12
Explicit References to EALRS: Yes

Scope of Project:
The project involved the development and implementation of a website concerning the WWII mass incarceration of Japanese Americans. The website contains curriculum materials and lesson plans that are aligned with EALRS.

Project Summary:
Bristol productions developed a website that contains primary documents, interview transcripts, and videos that support lesson plans teaching about the WWII mass incarcerations of Japanese Americans. Lesson plans connect the incarceration events with discussions of the constitution and civil rights in present day. The learning activities of each of the five lesson plans differ. In lesson plan one, students write a scholarly research paper about a Bainbridge Island newspaper owner, Walt Woodward, who spoke out about the WWII mass incarceration as it transpired. Other lessons help students understand discrimination and the loss of civil rights in different ways. For example, in one lesson students role play what it might look and feel like to lose their rights. This serves as an engagement to draw students into website resources such as primary documents and oral histories concerning the incarcerations. The website provides flexibility for instruction as teachers are able to give students interview transcripts or video recordings.

Availability of Materials:
Most materials are available. The site has free access to lesson plans, documents, and other media.

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Within the Silence 2003-2004
Living Voices

Grade Range: 3rd-12th
Explicit References to EALRS: No

Scope of Project:
During the 2003/2004 school year, the Within the Silence program performed at over 50 sites around the state of Washington.

Project Summary:
The Living Voices Project has two components. First, events surrounding the WWII incarceration of Japanese Americans are portrayed in a multimedia dramatic presentation. The Within the Silence presentation is composed of a live narrative from an actress in tandem with an audiovisual presentation. The narrative follows the experiences of a Japanese American family before, during, and after their incarceration. Before their incarceration, the family experiences community prejudice. During their incarceration, the family experiences harsh living conditions and brothers are forced to answer questions of “loyalty.” The answers to “loyalty” questions change the destinies of the two brothers. One brother refuses to serve in the military and is sent to Japan while the other brother serves in the military and is killed. Issues of prejudice, racism, citizenship, “loyalty,” and civil rights frame the presentation. After completing the 40-minute presentation, students are encouraged to ask questions in a 20-minute discussion. A supplementary teacher’s packet supports pre- and post-performance activities.

Availability of Materials:
A pdf of the teachers guide is available at the Living Voices website, but the guide is based upon live performances and workshops. However, the free guide could provide useful ideas for teachers. It is accessible for download. Schools can receive information and make program reservations by visiting the website. Information concerning Within the Silence can also be  obtained.

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Breaking the Silence: The Japanese American Experience
Nikki Nojima-Louis

Grade Range: K through post-secondary
Explicit References to EALRS: No

Scope of Project:
The project included a presentation at 18 different locations in Washington State with a total of 31 events.

Project Summary:
The project combined slides, lectures, reader’s theater, discussions, and teacher support to teach K through post-secondary students about the experiences of Japanese Americans. The project director wrote the play to portray the experiences of three generations of Japanese Americans as they experienced immigration, incarceration, and redress. Three of the Japanese American presenters were prisoners in the WWII mass incarceration. In addition to participating in the oral history drama and leading discussions about their experiences, former prisoners were able to answer questions from students. As well as performances at schools, the project included teacher training and the distribution of teacher guides. The teacher guide includes lesson plans and reader’s theater script. The lesson plans are arranged chronologically in tandem with the reader’s theater script. The first lesson introduces students to experiences of Japanese immigrants. This includes considerations of culture, terminology, and geography. The lessons continue through three generations, including the experiences of incarceration and redress. The lessons provide opportunities for success among diverse learners because the lessons combine multiple modes of learning activities ranging from small group work to whole class activities such as reader’s theater.

A description of one elementary school visit is accessible.

Availability of Materials:
Because a large portion of this program was performance based and led by the unique experiences of Japanese Americans, materials are not available for distribution. The teacher guide has numerous copyright restrictions that prohibit distribution.

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Leaving Our Island
Sonoji Sakai Intermediate School

Grade Range: 5-6
Aligned with EALRS: Yes

Scope of Project:
The project included the development of a curriculum teaching the WWII mass incarceration and internment of Japanese Americans. In addition, teacher workshops were conducted and the curriculum was implemented in 6th grade classrooms at one middle school. A 30-minute video documentary was produced that showed the development and implementation of the curriculum.

Project Summary:
The development and implementation of the curriculum in the “Leaving Our Island” project was a collaborative effort. While the curriculum was authored by the project director, teachers from multiple disciplines and parent groups supported the implementation of the curriculum. As well as teaching about the experiences of Japanese Americans within a historical context, students were encouraged to explore possible parallels between the WWII treatment of Japanese Americans and the treatment of Arab and Muslim Americans after September 11th. The curriculum was composed of varied learning activities including, the creation of story boards, meetings with former mass incarceration prisoners, simulations, and a fieldtrip to local historical sites and museums. The curriculum utilized community organizations and other resources to help students connect the past and the present in a unique way.

Availability of Materials:
Curriculum materials are not available for wide distribution. The curriculum was tailored to meet the needs of the community in which it was implemented. In addition to the resources that were developed locally, other copyrighted materials were used. The project produced a 30 minute video documentary on the development and implementation of the project. The Stanford Program on International and Cross-Cultural Education (SPICE) curriculum on Japanese American internment guided some instructional activities.

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The Japanese Internment: Civil Liberties Held Captive
Discovery Lab School Yakima School District

Grade Range: 5-12
Explicit References to EALRS: Yes

Scope of Project:
The development and implementation of a curriculum that facilitated student research concerning the experiences of Yakima Valley Japanese Americans during the 1940’s. Students collected oral histories and artifacts that led to historical descriptions. Students presented their findings to over 300 5th-8th grade students at five separate schools and created a video documentary of oral histories of former internees. Area schools can borrow the artifact collection from Yakima Valley Museum. The “Dig Deep: Classroom Based Assessments” was used as a measure of student learning.

Project Summary:
Students researched the experiences of Japanese Americans during WWII with an emphasis upon the experiences of local former prisoners. The project director developed a curriculum that provided historical and cultural backgrounds for research in the area of civil rights and the experiences of those Yakima Valley residents who were part of the WWII mass incarceration. Optional simulation lesson plans teach students to examine the feelings of internees as they left and returned to their homes before and after their incarceration. Students gathered artifacts and interviewed area residents for their data. The interviews were video recorded and presented in a 30-minute CD-ROM documentary. Students wrote and performed dramatic presentations to area schools. The curriculum guide for the project includes lesson plans, a lesson sequence guide, resources, and reproducible student activity sheets. One of the lesson plans includes an example of how the “Dig Deep: Classroom Based Assessment” can be performed with the issue of the WWII mass incarceration of Japanese Americans.

Availability of Materials:
Downloadable curriculum guide. The artifact packages that students developed are available to area schools from the Yakima Valley Museum (509)248-0747.

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Never Forget Curriculum
Agency for Instructional Technology

Grade Range: 9-12
Explicit References to EALR’s: National Standards

Scope of Project:
The project included the development of an educational website concerning the WWII mass incarceration of Japanese Americans.

Project Summary:
The website provides background information, oral histories, and lesson plans. Historical context for the incarceration is established with a description of discriminatory immigration policies and laws that were based upon race. Other information is provided concerning the events leading to the incarceration, the incarceration years, and redress. The Curriculum contains a three week unit that can supplement regular curriculum or stand alone. Fourteen lessons parallel the format of background information contained on other sections of the website. Each lesson is aligned with National Standards and can be taught independently from the other lessons. Links to many of the resources provide easy access to materials needed for the lessons. For example, a lesson on Executive Orders provides links to archives with past Executive Orders. An examination of the interaction of race, discrimination, and intolerance are compared and contrasted across multiple periods and groups in American history.

Availability of Materials:
Website

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Densho: Teacher Workshops and Curriculum Materials


Grade Range: Middle to High School Aligned with EALRS: Yes

Scope of Project:
The project developed and implemented 6 one-day workshops that taught 72 middle and high school teachers how to utilize the Densho website. After workshops, teachers received e-mail and phone support concerning questions of curriculum implementation.

Project Summary:
Participants in the workshop received a resource guide that explained how to use the Densho website and provided sample lesson plans from those found online. The workshop focused on one of three curricula now available on the Densho website. Sample lessons were taken from a curriculum titled “Civil Rights and Japanese American Incarceration,” which was developed by Densho and Stanford Program on International and Cross-Cultural Education (SPICE). The six multipart lessons can be integrated with U.S. history textbooks or as a self-contained curriculum unit. The sequence of the lessons is as follows: Lesson one sets the context for discussions of civil rights and citizenship. Lesson two centers upon the history of Japanese immigration to the United States. In lesson three, students learn about the prelude to the mass incarceration of Japanese Americans. A description of the circumstances that led to the incarceration is seen from multiple perspectives. Lesson four contains eight activities that teach students about the incarceration years. Lesson five includes a discussion of the loyalty question. The question of loyalty is seen from the perspectives of Japanese American Soldiers and Japanese American resistors. Lesson six contains activities that increase student knowledge of the years following the mass incarceration. This includes a discussion of redress and contemporary perspectives on the mass incarceration. Throughout the online lessons, links are provided to documentary evidence such as photographs and oral histories. The sample lessons taken from the unit just described provided teachers in the Densho workshop with examples of how to integrate Densho online resources with other classroom curricula. In the workshop, teachers learned how to access online resources such as lesson plans, teachers guides, video and audio documentaries, photographs, documents, and other primary sources. Following the workshop, teachers received support from Densho while they implemented the Densho curriculum in their classrooms.

Availability of Materials:
Densho curriculum materials can be downloaded. The site has free access to lesson plans, documents, and other media.

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Examination of WWII Incarceration Camp Geography
Karl Lilliquist

Grade Range: 6th to Post-Secondary
Explicit References to EALRS: No

Scope of Project:
The project involved a multiple-site study of WWII Japanese American mass incarceration camps with a focus on the link between geography and the placement of camps. The sites were photographed and described in a textbook.

Project Summary:
The project was primarily composed of research concerning the placement of WWII incarceration camps. The research should yield a better understanding of how humans interacted with their environment during the construction of the camps, incarceration in the camps, and destruction of the camps. The focus of the text will be on the influence of geography upon human activity. The research and text is still in development. Eight incarceration camps were visited in the project.

Availability of Materials:
Some of the maps and photographs of sites might be available online. The project will not be completed until June 2006

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Show Me the Way Home
Ken Silverman

Grade Range: 6-12
Explicit References to EALRS: No

Scope of Project:
The project included the production of a 25-minute video documentary detailing the Tule Lake Pilgrimage in 2000, a return journey of those who were prisoners at Tule Lake mass incarceration camp during WWII. The documentary is supported with oral histories and other sources.

Project Summary:
The video documentary follows a group of Japanese Americans on their pilgrimage to Tule Lake incarceration camp, the location of their WWII mass incarceration. The film begins with a portrayal of the climate of discrimination against Japanese Americans following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Japanese Americans detail how businesses were ruined and work was hard to find. Government films of the incarceration camps are contrasted with the accounts of those incarcerated in the camps. Tule Lake “Segregation Center” provides a unique picture of resistance during WWII. It was a location used to incarcerate Japanese Americans who refused military induction while at incarceration facilities in other locations. Specifically, those who answered “no” on government loyalty questionnaires were sent to the Tule Lake “Segregation Center.” The oral histories of Japanese Americans are recorded while they visited the site and in separate interviews conducted in a studio. Interviewees describe their reasoning for answering “no” to the loyalty questionnaire. Many thought it wrong for the government to ask questions of loyalty when they had not been afforded the rights of citizenship. Discussions of resistance and civil rights are central to the documentary’s theme. The film ends with a comparison between the loss of civil rights in the name of national security during WWII and the discourses that emerged after September 11th. The narrative is supported by archival photographs and government films from the period.

Availability of Materials:
Copyright and permission issues prevent mass distribution at this time.

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Kitsap Kit
Kitsap County Historical Society

Grade Range: K-12
Explicit References to EALRS: No

Scope of Project:
The project produced a history kit teaching about the WWII mass incarceration of Japanese Americans.

Project Summary:
A hands-on history kit was developed to teach students about the mass incarceration of Japanese Americans during WWII through the exploration of primary sources. The contents of the kit are designed to help students understand what it meant for Japanese Americans and other groups to have their civil rights removed. The history kit is packaged in a suitcase, which is itself from the period of the mass incarceration. When students open the suitcase, they interact with artifacts such as textbooks, barbed wire, and a flag of the United States, which provide a concrete context for the examination of past events. Details such as the name of a Japanese American family on the suitcase identification tag set the stage for historical inquiry. An interactive CD and a teacher’s guide are included in the kit, as well as books and other media. Contemporary connections to past civil rights abuses are discussed.

Availability of Materials:
The kit can be checked out from OESD 114. However, the OESD requires that teachers be trained in the use of history kits before they are checked out, and the Kitsap Kit cannot be checked out by anyone outside of OESD 114.

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Tacoma Community College
Grade Range: Post-secondary
Explicit References to EALRS: No

Scope of and Summary of Project:
The project consisted of the creation of a college-level history course along with a 145 curriculum guide. Forty-five community college instructors of Washington State History learned how to use the curriculum in a workshop.

Availability of Materials:
Information on the curriculum and the curriculum materials are no longer available.

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From Coast and Camp to the Inland Empire
Whitworth College

Grade Range: 7-12
Explicit References to EALRS: Somewhat

Scope of Project:
The project involved research on the experiences of Japanese Americans during the WWII mass incarceration. The project yielded an audio CD of oral histories. Along with distribution of the CD, teacher workshops were held to demonstrate the documentary’s use in classrooms. Distribution and workshops were done in eastern Washington.

Project Summary:
The oral histories contained on the CD portray multiple perspectives of the WWII mass incarceration of Japanese Americans. Specifically, the project provides differing perspectives of those who ended up living in Eastern Washington as a result of the forced exclusion and incarceration. Some oral histories are of those who “voluntarily” moved from Western Washington to Eastern Washington after the order for the exclusion of Japanese Americans from coastal areas was given. Other oral histories are from those who left incarceration camps and settled in Eastern Washington. Some college-aged nisei students were allowed to leave incarceration camps to attend colleges in Eastern Washington. Japanese Americans describe their experiences of acceptance and discrimination in Eastern Washington. Finally, some oral histories depict the discrimination that persisted after the incarceration years. The multiple perspectives expressed in the audio documentary increase the depth of understanding of the mass incarceration experiences of Japanese Americans. A companion website contains lesson plans, photographs and other resources for teachers.

Availability of Materials:
The project CD was distributed to middle and high schools in Educational Service District 101 and some Puget Sound area high schools. All audio files and other companion resources can be downloaded.


 

 

After Silence
Bainbridge Civil Liberties Project
Bainbridge Historical Society

Project Summary:
Bainbridge Island's residents of Japanese ancestry were the first to be evacuated under Executive Order 9066. The Bainbridge Island Review was the only newspaper to protest this violation of civil liberties and to champion its victims throughout the war. This Island history, made famous by the bestseller Snow Falling on Cedars was the theme of a comprehensive educational opportunity developed by a consortium of the Bainbridge Island Historical Society Museum, the Bainbridge Island Japanese American Community (BIJAC), the Bainbridge School District, and Foxglove Films LLC. The centerpiece was the slide presentation of Dr. Frank Kitamoto, former internee, sharing his personal story. The presentation captured in perpetuity this moving presentation in broadcast-quality videotape and funded travel expenses for Dr. Kitamoto to take his talk beyond Puget Sound. In the Bainbridge Island Historical Society Museum, a permanent exhibit was constructed to showcase unique objects; museum audiotapes of oral histories were transcribed. Curriculum integrating the talk with museum resources was developed. Finally, a temporary exhibit of photographs of Manzanar by Ansel Adams was mounted.

Availability of Materials:
Copyright complications prohibit reproduction and distribution.

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Roger Shimomura: An American Diary
Bellevue Art Museum

Project Summary:
From December 8, 2001, through March of 2002, Bellevue Art Museum presented Roger Shimomura: An American Diary. The presentation included an exhibition of original paintings by Mr. Shimomura, and American of Japanese descent, which were inspired by his memories of internment during World War II and diaries his grandmother kept while interned in Idaho. School tours for 200 classrooms (approximately 6,000 children) in grades 5 through 12 were arranged. Through these docent-led tours, children explored the art exhibition and created their own art in a hands-on activity designed to augment the exhibition and extend each student's learning experience. Performances and discussions focusing on the subject of race, reparation and the internment of Japanese Americans were also part of the program. Complementing the exhibit and programs were curriculum guides for teachers in grades 5 through 12 with lesson plans and transparencies of Shimomura paintings, all designed to give students the opportunity to become knowledgeable about Mr. Shimomura's art and his way of using it to depict his cultural identity and his concerns about racism directed against Japanese Americans. Through the lessons, students learned about the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II and, through their own art and writings, explore the subjects of prejudice and cultural identity. These new curriculum materials modeled and excerpted portions of previously designed curricula developed by the Museum in 1996 in support of an earlier exhibition of Shimomura's work. The new materials addressed Washington State's Essential Academic Learning Requirements in Visual Arts and Social Studies and included an evaluation, assessment and reflection component. The guides were distributed to educators who toured the Museum's exhibition and to others from across the state who ordered them for classroom use.

Availability of Materials:
A curriculum unit produced by Roger Shimomura and Densho are accessible online at the Densho website. The title of the unit is In the Shadow of My Country: A Japanese American Artist Remembers

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Journey to Democracy: We're Not There Yet
Seattle Community College

Project Summary:
The Journey to Democracy: We're Not There Yet was a year long program designed to educate both the general public and Seattle Community College students about the World War II exclusion, forced removal and incarceration of Americans of Japanese ancestry, and to explore issues of social justice. A consortium of the Seattle Community Colleges (SCC), the Seattle Chapter of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) and the Japanese American National Museum (National Museum) proposed to develop new community college-level curriculum that reflected primary and secondary research conducted as part of the creation of a new exhibit by the National Museum, and to offer a variety of public programs around the exhibit. The new exhibit told the story of Japanese Americans who were in the concentration camps as well as provided some historical and political context. Selected SCC faculty, administrators and students from the three colleges worked closely with the National Museum during Fall 2001 in designing, researching, and mounting the exhibit. The exhibit rotated among the three SCC art galleries beginning in winter 2002. A series of public programs - lectures, performances, and panel discussions - addressed issues of common experience. SCC faculty used information gathered through the new exhibit to develop and teach two new courses, and to revise existing curriculum. The exhibit opening and related activities was launched with a citywide Day of Remembrance event in February 2002. A documentary made about the creation of the new exhibit was aired on SCC-TV and was available worldwide using streaming video across the Internet.

Availability of Materials:
Materials are no longer available.

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JACE Project: Japanese American Cultural Education Project
Wing Luke Museum

Project Summary:
The Wing Luke Asian Museum (WLAM) partnered with the Washington State Association for Multicultural Education (WSAME) to present JACE (Japanese American Cultural Enrichment) Project. JACE provided teacher training and resource development workshops on the subject of the World War II incarceration of Japanese Americans into concentration camps. The JACE workshops were targeted to and accessible for educators and community people across Washington State. Each of the eight Educational Service Districts (ESDs) in the state hosted a comprehensive one-day JACE workshop. In addition, one intensive two-day workshop was offered in the Seattle area for the public to attend. JACE workshops were led by Mako Nakagawa, an education consultant specializing in teaching about the Japanese American internment experience, and offered methods to teach cultural diversity in the classroom. Each workshop includes a panel of former internees to tell their own stories, each different but also sharing common strands.

A Living Voices production of "Within the Silence: Share the Courage", combining a live dramatic performance with archival film footage, was part of the workshop program. Each ESD received a JACE Resource Bin of teaching materials developed by the Japanese American Citizen League (JACL) and the WLAM. The materials included curriculum guides, film/videotapes, and a resource multimedia archive that captured the experiences of Japanese Americans in WWII. For ESDs already in possession of the original version of the JACE Resource Bin (originally called Shorai Project), they received updated information.

Availability of Materials:
Contact the Wing Luke Museum for JACE Resource Bin and other curriculum materials.

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Descriptions were derived from the WCLPEP 2001 Legislative Report: The wording is the same, but light editing has been done to maintain consistency throughout the document.

Densho Project

Project Summary:
The Densho Project developed a website of unique magnitude; a resource for learning that captures the complexity and, significance of our government's actions during World War II and the constitutional implications of those actions. The Densho Educational Website not only provides information - it promotes exploration. Students, teachers, and learners of all ages have access to:

  • A Visual History Archive of over 250 hours of videotaped interviews (presently at 200+);
  • An Image Library of over 1,000 historic photographs;
  • A Document Library of diaries, letters, court cases, legislation, and newspaper articles;
  • A comprehensive, multimedia, historical overview;
  • A series of curriculum modules, providing a civil rights framework and skills-based lessons.
  • WCLPEP funding helped to create web access to Densho materials, develop supplemental curriculum, and add new content to the Densho digital archive in the form of additional interviews, photographs, and documents. Densho’s goal was to create an educational resource that fosters the understanding and skills necessary to inspire today's youth to actively seek equity for all people.

Availability of Materials:
All materials are available.

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Conscience and the Constitution
Frank Abe

Project Summary:
The Conscience and the Constitution Library Media Project combined an award-winning PB.S television documentary with study materials posted on the PBS Online Website, to deliver new information about the Japanese American incarceration and the hitherto untold story of the largest organized resistance to incarceration. In 1944, 85 American citizens, several of them from Washington State, refused to be drafted out of the camp at Heart Mountain, Wyoming. They were ready to fight for their country, but not before the government restored their rights as U.S. citizens and released their families from camp. It was a classic example of civil disobedience - but the government prosecuted them as criminals and Japanese American leaders and veterans ostracized them as traitors. The resisters served two years in prison, half of them at the federal penitentiary at McNeil Island, Washington, and for the next fifty years were written out of the official history of Japanese America. This project:

  • Distributed 100 VHS videocassettes to secondary school library media centers and ESDs in Washington State,
  • Updated the film’s secondary school Classroom Guide to align with the Washington State Essential Academic Learning Requirements, and published and distribute 1000 copies to library media specialists – hence, copies may be available at local libraries.
  • Trained library media specialists in use of the video and website through a workshop at the fall conference of the Washington Library Media Association on October 11-13, 2001, in Wenatchee.

The Conscience and the Constitution companion website provides access to film clips and additional information. The website also has companion lesson plans and video clips.

Availability of Materials:
Since the film and the secondary school Classroom Guide accompanying it were distributed to library media specialists across the state, copies may be available at local libraries.

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Shirakawa: Stories from a Pacific Northwest Japanese American Community
White River Valley Museum

Project Summary:
The project researched, wrote, and produced Shirakawa: Stories from a Pacific Northwest Japanese American Community, a book containing the oral histories of Japanese Americans in the White River Valley area of Washington State. Shirakawa (White River) is a significant addition to understanding Japanese American history. The book details the lives of Japanese Americans who migrated to the White River Valley, creating a thriving fertile crescent of farms. However, the mass incarceration of Japanese Americans during WWII had a devastating impact on the lives of residents and the farms that were 50 years in the making. The book weaves together the oral histories of the Japanese Americans into a narrative that begins with immigration and ends with their WWII incarceration. It was produced by the White River Valley Museum, and is distributed through a co-publication agreement with the University of Washington Press. Stan Flewelling wrote the 254-page book, with a preface by Dr. Gordon Hirabayashi. The author interviewed over 40 internees, and brought their stories together to create the only picture of the White River Valley pre-World War II farming community. The oral histories are complemented with reproductions of photographs and primary documents. Professional editing was donated, and design services were grant funded. An exhibit at the White River Valley Museum accompanied the book publication. Many of the primary documents that contributed to the writing of the book are available in the museum’s archives.

Availability of Materials:
The book was distributed to public libraries within the State of Washington. The book can be purchased by calling (253) 288-7433 or visiting White River Valley Museum.









 

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