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Updated 5/19/2017


Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State
Middle School Grade Levels

Middle School Curriculum

Washington State History
Unit 1: Territory and Treaty Making: The Point No Point Treaty
Unit 1: The Walla Walla Treaty Council of 1855
Unit 2: - available Spring 2017
Unit 3: - available Spring 2017

U.S. History
Unit 1: Fighting for Independence and Framing the Constitution: Revolution and Constitution in Indian Country
Unit 2: Slavery, Expansion, and Removal: Jackson, Marshall, and Indian Removal
Unit 3: Civil War and Reconstruction: Indian Treaties: Goals and Effects
Unit 4: Development and Struggles in the West: The Dawes Act

Unit 1     Washington State History
The Walla Walla Treaty Council of 1855

Historical Era
1854 - 1889 The Treaty Era

STI Unit Overview
This four part unit challenges students to think critically about the conflicts before, during, and after the Walla Walla Treaty Council of 1855. After students have researched the spiritual, economic, cultural, and political significance of traditional tribal homelands, students will explore the roles of key stakeholders in the Walla Walla Treaty Council of 1855 that resulted in the treaties between the United States and the Walla Walla, Cayuse, and Umatilla Tribes and the newly formed Confederated Bands and Tribes of the Yakama Nation consisting of 14 bands and tribes. Students' activities will lead them to a Content Based Assessment presentation on how conflict could have been alleviated or avoided altogether.

General Suggestion: Teachers are strongly encouraged to use Washington State University's Native Teaching and Learning Online Resource Links that have been reviewed and evaluated by Native teachers.

STI Essential Questions
How might the conflicts that led to the Walla Walla Treaty of 1855, the wars that followed the treaty, and the economic, cultural, and spiritual devastation to those treaty tribes been alleviated or prevented?

  1. Part 1: Keeping the Home Fires Burning: Traditional Tribal Homelands
    Essential Question: How does physical geography affect the cultural geography of Plateau tribes?
  2. Part 2: Adding Fuel to Fuel the Fire: The Walla Walla Council
    Essential Question: What were the political, economic, and cultural forces that led to the treaties?
  3. Part 3: The Inferno Ablaze: Walla Walla Treaties Aftermath
    Essential Question: What are the ways in which the Walla Walla Treaty tribes responded to the threats and outside pressure to extinguish their cultures and independence?
  4. Part 4: Taking the Embers Out of the Fire: Preparing for the CBA "Causes of Conflict"
    Essential Question: What are the ways in which the Walla Walla Treaty tribes responded to the treaty violations and growing animosity between tribal people and non-Indian settlers that occurred immediately following the signing of the treaty/ies?

Common Core Standards for English/Language Arts
These lessons have not yet been aligned with CCSS.

OSPI-Developed Assessments for Social Studies
Causes of Conflict Dig Deep

Unit Developed By
Shana Brown (Yakama descendent)






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Except where otherwise noted, "Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State" by Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction in partnership with the Federally Recognized Tribes in Washington State is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. All logos are property of their respective owners.