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Office of Native Education




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Roger Fernandes


Updated 9/15/2017


Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State
Middle School Grade Levels

Middle School Curriculum

Washington State History
Unit 1: Territory and Treaty Making: The Point No Point Treaty
Unit 1: The Walla Walla Treaty Council of 1855
Unit 2: - available Spring 2017
Unit 3: - available Spring 2017

U.S. History
Unit 1: Fighting for Independence and Framing the Constitution: Revolution and Constitution in Indian Country
Unit 2: Slavery, Expansion, and Removal: Jackson, Marshall, and Indian Removal
Unit 3: Civil War and Reconstruction: Indian Treaties: Goals and Effects
Unit 4: Development and Struggles in the West: The Dawes Act

Unit 4     U.S. History
Development and Struggles in the West: The Dawes Act

Historical Era
1870 – 1900: Assimilation

STI Unit Overview
This unit explores the continued impact of assimilation to tribal nations resulting from the General Allotment Act of 1887 (also known as the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887).

Level 1 – Students engage in activities using learning strategies to build vocabulary to understand the history of allotment, are introduced to the General Allotment Act of 1887, and consider the continued impacts of allotment to tribal nations today.

Level 2 – These lessons focus learning stories that explain how American Indian tribes originated as a distinct and unique people and the importance of place as the foundation of worldview and cultural heritage.

Level 3 – Students develop skills to analyze primary documents, maps, and letters to examine the pros and cons, and implications of the Dawes Act for Native Americans. Students will complete either the Why History? or Causes of Conflict CBA.

STI Essential Questions

  1. What are the ways in which Tribes respond to the threats and outside pressure to extinguish their cultures and independence?

Common Core Standards for English/Language Arts
Middle School CCSS

OSPI-Developed Assessments for Social Studies
Causes of Conflict CBA

Unit Developed By
Jerry Price
Updated 2017 by Paula Scott (Cherokee), Teacher
and Dr. Laura Lynn




Download Curriculum
Level 1 | Level 2 | Level 3

Corresponding Videos
Tribal Perspectives of American History in the Northwest – Chapter 7 and 8

Contemporary Voices Along the Lewis and Clark Trail – Chapter 4



Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise noted, "Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State" by Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction in partnership with the Federally Recognized Tribes in Washington State is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. All logos are property of their respective owners.