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For more information:
Office of Native Education




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Roger Fernandes


Updated 11/21/2017


Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State
Middle School Grade Levels

Middle School Curriculum

Washington State History
Unit 1: Territory and Treaty Making: The Point No Point Treaty
Unit 1: The Walla Walla Treaty Council of 1855
Unit 2: - available Spring 2017
Unit 3: - available Spring 2017

U.S. History
Unit 1: Fighting for Independence and Framing the Constitution: Revolution and Constitution in Indian Country
Unit 2: Slavery, Expansion, and Removal: Jackson, Marshall, and Indian Removal
Unit 3: Civil War and Reconstruction: Indian Treaties: Goals and Effects
Unit 4: Development and Struggles in the West: The Dawes Act

Unit 2     U.S. History
Slavery, Expansion, and Removal: Jackson, Marshall, and Indian Removal

Historical Era
1801 - 1850: Indian Removal

STI Unit Overview
Level 1
This is a newsletter about the decisions made by John Marshall and the Supreme Court regarding the United States' effort to remove the Cherokee and other tribes from their lands. There are student comprehension questions following the newsletter.

Level 2
Asks students to use primary sources to research how Cherokee removal was debated and discussed by the US Legislature, Cherokee Tribe, and other citizens. A webquest is also provided, allowing students to engage in similar activities online.

Level 3
This activity builds on the level two activity. Students are asked to use the Checks and Balances CBA to evaluate whether the removal of Cherokees from their land was an unconstitutional use of power by any branch of the US government.

STI Essential Questions

  1. What were the political, economic, and cultural forces that led to the treaties?
  2. What are the ways in which tribes responded to the threats and outside pressure to extinguish their cultures and independence?

Common Core Standards for English/Language Arts
Middle School CCSS

OSPI-Developed Assessments for Social Studies
Checks and Balances

Unit Developed By
Jerry Price






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Except where otherwise noted, "Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State" by Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction in partnership with the Federally Recognized Tribes in Washington State is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. All logos are property of their respective owners.