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Office of Native Education




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Roger Fernandes


Updated 5/19/2017


Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State
High School Grade Levels

High School Curriculum

U.S. History
Unit 1: Our Foundation: Foundational Documents and the Boldt Decision (Boldt I and II)
Unit 2: Industrialization and the Emergence of the United States as a World Power: The Allotment Act
Unit 3: Reform, Prosperity, and Depression: Indian Reorganization Act
Unit 4: World War II, The Cold War, and International Relations: Termination and Relocation
Unit 5: Available Spring 2017
Unit 6: Entering a New Era: Nation-Building, Gaming and Self-Determination

Contemporary World Problems
Unit 1: Human Rights - Constitutional Issues: A Tribal Perspective
Unit 2: Environmental Issues: The Boldt Decision
Unit 3: Available Spring 2017
Unit 4: Civic Action and the Economy: Nation-Building and Taxation

Unit 6     United States History
Entering a New Era: Nation-Building, Gaming and Self-Determination

Historical Era
1991 - Present: Nation Building

STI Unit Overview
Level 1
Students will:

  • Read an article and participate in a class discussion of Indian Gaming and Self-Governance.
  • Illustrate Indian Gaming and Criminal Jurisdiction in Indian Country by creating a class storyboard for each topic.
  • Compare the similarities in how Indian Gaming and Criminal Jurisdiction have been shaped by federal legislation and litigation.

Level 2
Students will:

  • Analyze an economic enterprise of a local tribe and its effects on the larger community and neighboring economies.
  • Understand the complicated maze of jurisdiction on Indian lands.
  • Synthesize the impact Indian gaming has on drawing people to the reservations with the jurisdictional and law enforcement needs of the Indian community.

Level 3
Students will:

  • Compare the competing perspectives on Indian gaming and defend a position on Indian gaming on a local reservation.
  • Analyze and evaluate how the outcome of Oliphant v Suquamish Tribe affects tribal sovereignty, examine civil or criminal jurisdiction of a local tribe, and defend a position on the criminal jurisdiction a local tribe has over non-Indians on a local reservation.

STI Essential Questions

  1. What do local tribes do to meet the challenges of reservation life? What do tribes, as sovereign nations, do to meet the economic and cultural needs of their tribal communities?

Common Core Standards for English/Language Arts
This unit has not yet been aligned with CCSS.

OSPI-Developed Assessments for Social Studies
Constitutional Issues
You and the Economy

Unit Developed By
Elese Washines (Yakama Nation)




Download Curriculum
Level 1 | Level 2 | Level 3

Corresponding Videos
Contemporary Voices Along the Lewis and Clark Trail



Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise noted, "Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State" by Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction in partnership with the Federally Recognized Tribes in Washington State is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. All logos are property of their respective owners.