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Updated 11/21/2017


Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State
High School Grade Levels

High School Curriculum

U.S. History
Unit 1: Our Foundation: Foundational Documents and the Boldt Decision (Boldt I and II)
Unit 2: Industrialization and the Emergence of the United States as a World Power: The Allotment Act
Unit 3: Reform, Prosperity, and Depression: Indian Reorganization Act
Unit 4: World War II, The Cold War, and International Relations: Termination and Relocation
Unit 5: Available Spring 2017
Unit 6: Entering a New Era: Nation-Building, Gaming and Self-Determination

Contemporary World Problems
Unit 1: Human Rights - Constitutional Issues: A Tribal Perspective
Unit 2: Environmental Issues: The Boldt Decision
Unit 3: Available Spring 2017
Unit 4: Civic Action and the Economy: Nation-Building and Taxation

Unit 4     United States History
World War II, The Cold War, and International Relations: Termination and Relocation

Historical Era
1939 - 1991 Termination and Self-Determination

STI Unit Overview
By the end of instruction, students will:

  • Recognizes House Concurrent Resolution 108, Public Law 280, and the federal "Relocation" program that affected and continues to affect tribal sovereignty, the federal- Indian trust relationship, and tribal development
  • Distinguish between federally and non-federally recognized tribes
  • Examines the underlying assumptions of the US Termination policy

Level 1
Students will read an article giving a brief overview of the Termination Era, break into groups and read two different perspectives on Termination, and debate as either a member of a group representing the Klamath and opposed to termination or as a member of a group representing the US Government and supporting termination.

Level 2
Students will evaluate how the federal Relocation program under the policy of Termination affected various tribal nations through the stories of individual members of the tribe. Students will analyze why the federal Relocation program was implemented.

Level 3
Students will compare and contrast the process of gaining recognition for the Klamath tribe and the Duwamish tribe and state the reasons for each tribe's eventual success or failure in gaining recognition. Students will recognize and criticize the process of gaining tribal recognition for its value in endorsing a distinct cultural identity. Students will analyze why Public Law 280 was implemented, study the effects of PL280 on various tribes and Nations around the country, and evaluate how PL280 affected the federal, state, and tribal governments.

STI Essential Questions

  1. What are the ways in which tribes respond to the threats and outside pressure to extinguish their cultures and independence?
  2. What are local tribes doing to meet the challenges of reservation life? What are these tribes, as sovereign nations, doing to meet the economic and cultural needs of their tribal communities?

Common Core Standards for English/Language Arts
High School CCSS

OSPI-Developed Assessments for Social Studies
U.S. Foreign Policy
Checks and Balances

Unit Developed By
Elese Washines (Yakama Nation)




Download Curriculum
Level 1 | Level 2 | Level 3

Corresponding Videos
Contemporary Voices Along the Lewis and Clark Trail



Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise noted, "Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State" by Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction in partnership with the Federally Recognized Tribes in Washington State is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. All logos are property of their respective owners.