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For more information:
Office of Native Education




Logo designed by
Roger Fernandes


Updated 5/19/2017


Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State
Elementary Grade Levels

Elementary Curriculum

Primary Elementary K-3
Pathway 1: Stories and Histories of Our Place

Washington State History
Unit 1: Exploring the Pacific Northwest Prior to Statehood: Tribal Homelands
Unit 2: Living in Washington: Celilo Falls
Unit 3: Being Citizens of Washington: Salmon Recovery and the Boldt Decision

U.S. History
Unit 1: Encounter, Colonization, and Devastation: Tribal Homelands
Unit 2: Independence: Revolution and the U.S. Constitution in Indian Country
Unit 3: Legacy for Us Today: Elwha

Unit 3     U.S. History
Legacy for Us Today: Elwha

Historical Era
1780 - Present

STI Unit Overview
The Freeing the Elwha Curriculum is an inquiry and standards based, integrated curriculum designed to guide middle school students in understanding the natural and manmade processes involved in river restoration. The removal of two dams from the Elwha River began September 2011, and is historic as it is the biggest dam removal project in the world. The Elwha River flows through the beautiful Olympic National Park, in Washington, and is unique in having been largely protected from adverse human impacts. When the dams come out, the Elwha River will once again host its famous salmon runs. The curriculum focuses on this historic event.

STI Essential Questions

  1. What were the political, economic, and cultural forces that led to the treaties?
  2. What are the ways in which tribes respond to the threats and outside pressure to extinguish their cultures and independence?

Common Core Standards for English/Language Arts
This unit has not yet been aligned with CCSS.

OSPI-Developed Assessments for Social Studies
What's the Big Idea?

Unit Developed By
Shana Brown (Yakama descendent)
Based on lessons adapted from the National Park Service Freeing the Elwha Curriculum.




Freeing the Elwha
This unit features four lessons from the Freeing the Elwha Curriculum

Note: Some links may not be active in the lesson plans developed by the National Park Service.

Unit Instructional Materials
The following instructional materials accompany all of the lessons

Corresponding Videos
Native Homelands Along the Lewis and Clark Trail

Contemporary Voices Along the Lewis and Clark Trail



Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise noted, "Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State" by Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction in partnership with the Federally Recognized Tribes in Washington State is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. All logos are property of their respective owners.