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For more information:
Office of Native Education




Logo designed by
Roger Fernandes


Updated 5/19/2017


Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State
Elementary Grade Levels

Elementary Curriculum

Primary Elementary K-3
Pathway 1: Stories and Histories of Our Place

Washington State History
Unit 1: Exploring the Pacific Northwest Prior to Statehood: Tribal Homelands
Unit 2: Living in Washington: Celilo Falls
Unit 3: Being Citizens of Washington: Salmon Recovery and the Boldt Decision

U.S. History
Unit 1: Encounter, Colonization, and Devastation: Tribal Homelands
Unit 2: Independence: Revolution and the U.S. Constitution in Indian Country
Unit 3: Legacy for Us Today: Elwha

Unit 1     U.S. History
Encounter, Colonization, and Devastation: Tribal Homelands

Historical Era
Time Immemorial to 1770

STI Unit Overview
To understand the founding of our country, it is important to consider the causes and consequences of colonization of the Americas for the tribes who live in the land that was colonized.

Level 1
Activities students will create their own Sacred Space, read and discuss text to understand the impact colonization had on tribal people, and use maps to show and analyze information about Northeastern Tribes and the thirteen colonies.

Level 2
Students will participate in the enactment of a poem reading that demonstrates the impacts of colonization to Indians, consider questions of fairness and justification for taking things/spaces that are important to others, and study maps to examine the continued impacts of colonization to tribal people today.

Level 3
Focuses on the completion of the "Causes of Conflict" CBA.

STI Essential Questions

  1. How does physical geography affect Northwest tribes' culture, economy, and where they choose to settle and trade?
  2. What are local tribes doing to meet the challenges of reservation life? What are these tribes, as sovereign nations, doing to meet the economic and cultural needs of their tribal communities?

Common Core Standards for English/Language Arts
Elementary CCSS

OSPI-Developed Assessments for Social Studies
Causes of Conflict

Unit Developed By
Shana Brown (Yakama descendent)




Download Curriculum
Level 1 | Level 2 | Level 3

Corresponding Videos
Tribal Perspectives of American History in the Northwest

Native Homelands Along the Lewis and Clark Trail



Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise noted, "Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State" by Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction in partnership with the Federally Recognized Tribes in Washington State is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. All logos are property of their respective owners.