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Office of Native Education




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Roger Fernandes


Updated 5/19/2017


Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State
High School Grade Levels

High School Curriculum

U.S. History
Unit 1: Our Foundation: Foundational Documents and the Boldt Decision (Boldt I and II)
Unit 2: Industrialization and the Emergence of the United States as a World Power: The Allotment Act
Unit 3: Reform, Prosperity, and Depression: Indian Reorganization Act
Unit 4: World War II, The Cold War, and International Relations: Termination and Relocation
Unit 5: Available Spring 2017
Unit 6: Entering a New Era: Nation-Building, Gaming and Self-Determination

Contemporary World Problems
Unit 1: Human Rights - Constitutional Issues: A Tribal Perspective
Unit 2: Environmental Issues: The Boldt Decision
Unit 3: Available Spring 2017
Unit 4: Civic Action and the Economy: Nation-Building and Taxation

Unit 2     Contemporary World Problems
Environmental Issues: The Boldt Decision

Historical Era
The Present: Nation Building

STI Unit Overview
Level 1:
Indian people lived in the Pacific Northwest for thousands of years, with salmon as a foundation for their culture, economy, and religion. There are many dates, names, and places that were important in establishing current tribal fishing rights. Students will define terms related to tribal fishing rights and interpret legal terms associated with Indian case law.

Level 2:
Students will evaluate important events in tribal fishing rights, select ten events that seem most important, and construct a timeline. They will make an accordion book to present their timelines.

Level 3:
Students will gather an artifact box filled with information, facts, photo evidence, and so on that an international environmental lawyer might use to defend indigenous water rights.

STI Essential Questions

  1. What were the political, economic, and cultural forces that led to the treaties?
  2. What are the ways in which tribes respond to the threats and outside pressure to extinguish their cultures and independence?
  3. What are local tribes doing to meet the challenges of reservation life? What are these tribes, as sovereign nations, doing to meet the economic and cultural needs of their tribal communities?

Common Core Standards for English/Language Arts
High School CWP CCSS

OSPI-Developed Assessments for Social Studies
Constitutional Issues

Unit Developed By
Shana Brown (Yakama descendent)

Download Curriculum
Level 1 | Level 2 | Level 3

Corresponding Videos
Contemporary Voices Along the Lewis and Clark Trail

Native Homelands Along the Lewis and Clark Trail



Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise noted, "Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State" by Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction in partnership with the Federally Recognized Tribes in Washington State is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. All logos are property of their respective owners.