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Office of Native Education




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Roger Fernandes


Updated 5/19/2017


Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State
High School Grade Levels

High School Curriculum

U.S. History
Unit 1: Our Foundation: Foundational Documents and the Boldt Decision (Boldt I and II)
Unit 2: Industrialization and the Emergence of the United States as a World Power: The Allotment Act
Unit 3: Reform, Prosperity, and Depression: Indian Reorganization Act
Unit 4: World War II, The Cold War, and International Relations: Termination and Relocation
Unit 5: Available Spring 2017
Unit 6: Entering a New Era: Nation-Building, Gaming and Self-Determination

Contemporary World Problems
Unit 1: Human Rights - Constitutional Issues: A Tribal Perspective
Unit 2: Environmental Issues: The Boldt Decision
Unit 3: Available Spring 2017
Unit 4: Civic Action and the Economy: Nation-Building and Taxation

Unit 1     Contemporary World Problems
Human Rights - Constitutional Issues: A Tribal Perspective

Historical Era
The Present: Nation Building

STI Unit Overview
Level 1:
Students will:

  • Explain and analyze the causes of substandard housing in Indian Country
  • Understand how policies impact communities and how policies serve to resolve or create community conflicts
  • Explore the process of community-based decision making using a community development setting

Level 2:
Students will compare and contrast the treaty provisions that provide for adequate housing, nutrition, healthcare, education, etc. with the realities of the provisions for at least one local tribe.

Level 3:
Students will:

  • State a position on the adequacy of adhering to treaty rights to ensure the basic human rights of at least one local tribe.
  • Analyze why the provisions in the treaty were negotiated and to what degree they were implemented for national and/or international interests from two or more social science perspectives.
  • Analyze of the effects of the policy including a discussion of how the policy affected stakeholders in the United States and how the policy imposed costs or provided benefits for other nations
  • .

    STI Essential Questions

    1. What is the legal status of the tribes who negotiated or who did not enter into United States treaties?
    2. What do local tribes do to meet the challenges of reservation life? What do these tribes, as sovereign nations, do to meet the economic and cultural needs of their tribal communities?

    Common Core Standards for English/Language Arts
    High School CWP CCSS

    OSPI-Developed Assessments for Social Studies
    U.S. Foreign Policy CBA

    Unit Developed By
    Shana Brown (Yakama descendent)

Download Curriculum
Level 1 | Level 2 | Level 3

Corresponding Videos
Contemporary Voices Along the Lewis and Clark Trail

Native Homelands Along the Lewis and Clark Trail



Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise noted, "Since Time Immemorial: Tribal Sovereignty in Washington State" by Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction in partnership with the Federally Recognized Tribes in Washington State is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. All logos are property of their respective owners.